This is the reading for June 24th’s meeting. You can get the location and other details at our meetup.com page.
1. In chapters 1 and 2, Pippin argued that Hegel’s practical philosophy—which Hegel would have called a philosophy of spirit—is primarily a theory of freedom. His idea of freedom is quite far from our usual notions of freedom, which tend to revolve around abstract questions of free will and political questions of what we ought to be free from or to do. To some degree, Hegel combines these two sides of freedom when he says that a free act is not necessarily one freely caused by me, but rather an act which I can, on reflection, fully endorse. Further, this sort of reflective endorsement is only possible when one understands one self and others in particular ways and stands in rule-governed institutional relations.
2. Pippin also introduced the claim that “spirit is a product of itself.” Spirit is the industry-standard translation of the German word Geist, and for our purposes, we can basically define it as both the development and actual existence of a given historical period’s package set of fundamental concepts and practices.
3. This claim that spirit is a product of itself is important for two reasons. First, it both connects Hegel to, and differentiates him from, earlier German idealists like Kant and Fichte. Second, it is one of the main points in his social, collective idea of freedom. These two points are connected: for Kant and Fichte, cognitive and practical normativity (how we ought to think, what we ought to do) find their origins in the (either logically or practically necessary) cognitive acts of individuals, while for Hegel, both kinds of normativity are the result of collective, historical development.
This is will be our reading for June 10th. You can find all the details on our Meetup.com page.
Chapter 1: Introduction
There are several questions any account of freedom needs to be able to answer, with three being the most obvious. First, what is freedom, or what would it mean to act freely? Second, is it possible to act freely? Third, how important is leading a free life?
These days, these sorts of questions are folded into an area of research called “practical philosophy,” which has two questions of its own. First, are there events that we can demand justifications for, or are all events caused in the same uniform way? Is there a real distinction between a human act and a rock rolling downhill? Second, if the answer to the first question is yes, then we need to ask what counts as a good justification.
Hegel’s theory of freedom, as a theory of both action and value, is his answer to all of these questions. The standard description of Hegel’s theory says it has two elements. First, to be free is to have a reflective and deliberate relation to one’s actions, and second, that this is only possible when one is in a certain (institutional and rule-governed) relation to others.
In finishing the long chapter on Reason, we should expect to find a transition that shows the reason for the next section on Spirit. Indeed, we find exactly that, just as we found similar transitions between sections at the end of “Consciousness” and “Self-Consciousness.” However, unlike the shift from, for example, Self-consciousness to Reason, the movement from Reason to Spirit has been anticipated for a long while. If we put aside the Preface (which was written last), then before the section on Reason, there was only one mention of Reason [Vernuft] as a moment of consciousness. On the other hand, before the chapter entitled “Spirit,” the word Geist has appeared about a hundred times. As the title The Phenomenology of Spirit suggests, there is something about Spirit that warrants special attention.