Here is the reading for April 9. It is a long one, because it is basically a reading and a half, but my summer schedule is getting too busy. Here is a printable copy.
Foucault begins with a definition of sovereignty: “For a long time, one of the characteristic privileges of sovereign power was the right to decide life and death” (135). It was derived from the power of the Roman head of household, who had the right to “dispose” of the lives of his children and slaves. He gave them life, so he could take it away. By the time the “classical theoreticians” considered it, it had gone from being an absolute power to one that was only exercised when the sovereign’s existence was threatened, like during a war. Specifically, by drafting subjects, he could “expose their life”. Conscription was an indirect power of life and death. Against treason, there was a direct power of execution. So the power of life and death was conditional: the protection of the sovereign’s existence.
Here is the reading for Saturday, March 26. A printable copy is here. Check the sidebar for the location, or search for us on Meetup.com.
We Other Victorians
There is a very common story about 19th century Victorian England: that it was prudish and did its best to suppress all non-reproductive sex. As the story goes, at the dawn of the 17th century, people were still frank about sexuality and practiced it openly.
But then the Victorians, those bastards, ruined it all: “Sexuality was carefully confined; it moved into the home. The conjugal family took custody of it and absorbed it into the serious function of reproduction. On the subject of sex, silence became the rule (3).” Sex was only legitimate between procreative couples. There was only a single place for sex in social space: the parents’ bedroom. Anything else had to remain vague, or was denied or silenced. For example—everyone knew that children had no sex, so they were forbidden to talk about it, and evidence to the contrary was denied. All of this is what we usually call “repression.”